mindfulness has four key components that may account for its effects: attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and sense of self.
Together, these components help us attend to and deal with the mental and physiological effects of stress in ways that are non-judgmental, researchers said. Although the components are unique, they are closely intertwined.
For example, improvement in attention regulation may help us be aware of our physiological state while body awareness, in turn, helps us to recognize the emotions we are experiencing.
A better understanding of the relationships between these components, and the brain mechanisms that underlie them, will allow clinicians to better prescribe mindfulness interventions for their patients.